Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (68)

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1

##
Measurement

### is the assignment of numbers to indicate different values of a variable.

2

## Measures

### are specific techniques or instruments used for measurement.

3

## Evaluation

### is the procedures for collecting information and using information to make decisions. Evaluation involves measurement, but may also involve sampling, design, and literature in the process of coming to a decision.

4

##
The purpose of measurement is _________________________________.

### to obtain information about the variables that are being studied. It provides a systematic procedure for recording observations, performance, or other responses of subjects

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## Operational Definitions

### Definitions of variables that specify how they were measured

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##
Assessment

###
1. assess is to measure

2. an assessment is synonymous with an evaluation

7

## Nominal (Classificatory) Scale

### A set of mutually exclusive categories with no order implied.

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## Ordinal Scale

### A set of rank-ordered categories.

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## Interval Scale

### Equal intervals between numbers

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## Ratio Scale

### Numbers expressed as ratios

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##
What is the following an example of?

The operators equal and not equal are allowed.

### example of nominal scale

12

##
What is the following an example of?

The operators greater than, less than, equal, and not equal (and all their combinations) are allowed.

### example of ordinal scale

13

##
What is the following an example of?

Fahrenheit and Celsius

###
example of interval scale

14

##
What is the following an example of?

Length and Kelvin temperature

### example of ratio scale

15

## Statistics

###
Mathematical procedures used to summarize and analyze data.

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## Descriptive Statistics

### Indices that summarize characteristics of sample data.

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##
Statistics

### describe sample data

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## Parameters

### describe population data

19

##
Frequency Distribution

### Data organized into scores and the frequency with which each score occurred

20

##
Frequency Polygon

### A line graph with frequency along the y-axis and score along the x-axis.

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## Histogram

### A bar graph with the same characteristics as a frequency polygon

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## Normal Distribution

### A frequency distribution with a characteristic bell shape. It is symmetrical.

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##
Skewed Distribution

### A non-symmetric distribution.

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##
positively skewed

### Occurs when most of the scores are at the low end of the distribution

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##
negatively skewed

###
Occurs when most of the scores are at the high end of the distribution

26

##
Outliers

### Atypical scores that are either extremely high or low

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##
Histogram

### Histograms use bars to represent frequency. The bars touch, and histograms are used for interval and ratio independent variables.

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##
Measures of Central Tendency

### Statistics that indicate the average or typical score in a distribution.

29

##
Mode

### The most frequently occurring score or scores.

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